Showing posts with label Networking. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Networking. Show all posts

How to Test Your Internet Speed ? New !!!!

Today i share how to test your internet browsing, download,uploading speed.All of us have Internet Connections at our places... and pay for costly Hi-Speed Broadband Plans...But never thought of checking the speed that you actually get? Well I made an application to serve the purpose.....

 How to Test Your Internet Speed ? New !!!!
About Application :
> Application Size = 208 KB
> It checks the Internet Speed from a Calcutta Server
> Downloads a 128 KB of Sample Data
> It calculates your inernet Speed for you

What you need to have :
> Windows 2000, NT, Xp, Vista or higher
> For Windows Xp, NT, 2000 .Net Framework 2.0 or higher (Vista has it preloaded)
> Internet Explorer Installed

How to Usage it :
** Just Double Click to test the speed of your connection.

Enjoy...Thank you

Wireless Networks and Wi-Fi Technology

What is Wi-Fi?

The Wi-Fi is the name of a popular wireless networking technology that uses radio waves to provide wireless high-speed Internet and networks connections.The wireless networking market is growing rapidly as business discover the productivity benefits of going wire-free.The increased mobility that WiFi networks offer has proved beneficial in operations throughout manufacturing facilities,warehouses transportation depot,hotel,airports,hospitals,collage,large enterprise as well as convention centers.In the corporation,
Wireless Networks and Wi-Fi Technology
conferance rooms,public area,and branch office constitute ideal venues for wireless LANs(WLANs)

WiFi solutions Installs Services:

  • Enterprise Wi-Fi Hotspots
  • Outdoor Broadband Wireless/Wi-Fi
  •  High Capacity WiMAX
  • Multi-Service Mesh Networks
  • Point to Point Wirless
  • Point to Multi-Point Wireless
  • Fixed Wireless Access
  • Wireless VOIP
  • Mobile Wireless Access
  • Wireless Video Surveillance.
  • 4.9GHz Public Safety Soluations
  • Business customer aggregation
  • Enterprise/Cumpus Inter-building connectivity
  • City -Wide municipal Networks
  • Wireless Back haul/Circuit Replacement
  • Wireless Video Surveillance
  • Public Safety Solutions

Common applications include of Wi-Fi:

  • Office Buildings
  • Business customer aggregation
  • Hotels
  • Resorts
  • Beach Fronts
  • Contruction Sites
  • Stadiums
  • Enterprise/Campus Inter-building Connectivity
  • Recreational Parks
  • Wireless Backhaul/Circuit Replacement
  • Condominiums
  • Colleges
  • Day Care
  • Marinas
  • Large enterprise
  • Public area and
  • Branch office

Email and eMail Stracture

What is Email?

e-Mail(Electronic Mail):
Electronic mail, most commonly referred to as email or e-mail.e-mail system is basically used for sending message electronically to individuals or group of individuals in an
inter or intra office environment.e-mails is consider to the first experience and espouse to the fields of data communication and networking.

Structure of an email:

An email message consists of these three basic distinct parts:
  • Header,
  • Message body, and
  • Signatures


The header, a set of lines containing information about the message's transportation, such as the sender's address, the recipient's address, or timestamps showing when the message was sent by intermediary servers to the transport agents, which act as a mail sorting office.
In an e-mail, the body (content text) is always preceded by header lines that identify particular routing information of the message, including the sender, recipient, date and subject. Some headers are mandatory, such as the FROM, TO and DATE headers. Others are optional, but very commonly used, such as SUBJECT and CC

Message body:

This is the main part that the recipient is interested in. A message can be any number of things or combination of:
  • Text,
  • Graphics,
  • Web page,
  • Animation,
  • Video or audio, or
  • Attachments


A signature appears at the end. A signature can be a graphic, web page, or just plain-text. An email client can be configured to automatically add an signature to each outgoing message.


The To:field contains the email address of the person to whom you are sending the e-mail.If you are sending e-mail to someone in your own domain,you do not need to include @ domain.


You can send the copy of the same e-mail to another person.For this you have to mention the e-mail address of the second  receipt.The software would take care that the same message is sent to the second recipient too.


It is the short form of Blind Carbon Copy,which gives you a way of copying and transmitting an e-Mail message to another person,without the first person(the main address),knowing about it


The Subject:field should contain a very short description(20 to 30 characters) of what your message is about.This field can be called subject of the Message:or simply message.It is not compulsory to  have a subject.


Using this option you can attach file created in other software along with the e-mail.In most of the cases while applying for a job,the letter is typed in the e-mail text and the bio-data which is mostly in some word processing mode ,attached to it.
Date and time are usually taken from the system.You need not type it.


The body of an e-Mail message is simply the text that you want to send to the other person.

e-Mail Stracture

Keyword ---------->    Meaning
To       ------------->    Recipient's address
Cc       ------------->   Address for carbon copy   
Bcc      ------------>    Address for carbon copy send any other people 
Subject ----------->    Topic of the message
Attachment------->    Any file attachment with this mail

Complete Guide about DOS and DOS Commands

DOS-Disk Operating System

What is Booting?

Ms Dos

It is procedure by which we can ready the computer to do any task according to our choice.Booting are two types:
  • Hot Booting (Worm Booting)
  • Cold Booting (Cool Booting)

Cold Booting:-

When the machine is off and we boot the machine by pressing power switch from switch board and then on the power switch of CPU box, this type of booting is called cold Booting.

Hot Booting:-

When the machine is on and we reboot the machine by pressing Ctrl+Alt+Del switch at a time from keyboard or by pressing RESET switch from CPU box,this type of booting is called Hot Booting.

What is DOS?

The very first operating system used on the earliest IBM PCs was called simply the Disk Operating System,abbreviate DOS.
DOS(Disk Operating System) is an acronym for several closely related operating systems that dominated the IBM PC compatible market between 1981 and 1995, or until about 2000 including the partially DOS-based Microsoft Windows versions 95, 98, and Millennium Edition.
Related systems include MS-DOS, PC DOS, DR-DOS, FreeDOS, ROM-DOS, and PTS-DOS
Command is a set of instruction.There are mainly two types of DOS command
  • Internal Command
  • External Command

Internal Command:-

These commands are automatically loaded into the computer's memory during booting process.They are actually included into the file.These commands are executable immediately after DOS prompt.
System Prompt or DOS Prompt:
C:\> This is called system prompt.
Note:-Where  C is drive name and '\' symbol means back slash.
Example of some Internal command-Date,Time,Ver,Vol,Cls,Type,Copy con,Copy,Ren,Del,MD,CD etc.

External Command:-

These commands are meant for special purposes.These are found in separate files on Hard disk or Floppy Disk,so that they don't typically consume valuable memory space.They are loaded into memory only as called that specifies command name.This are also called Disk-Resident commands.
Example of some External Commands-Attrib,Chkdsk,Label,FC,Xcopy,Move,Mode,Mem,More,Sort,Find,Tree,Help,Edit etc.

Some Important Internal and External DOS commands

Copy Con
syntax:-C:\>Copy con (File Name)<Enter>
This Command is used to make a new file
Syntex:-C:\>Type [target drive:path\file name] <Enter>
This command is used to view the content of any file.
APPEND [d:]path[;][d:]path[...]
APPEND [/X:on|off][/path:on|off] [/E]
Displays or sets the search path for data files. DOS will search the specified path(s) if the file is not found in the current path.
ASSIGN x=y [...] /sta
Redirects disk drive requests to a different drive. 
ATTRIB [d:][path]filename [/S]
ATTRIB [+R|-R] [+A|-A] [+S|-S] [+H|-H] [d:][path]filename [/S]
Sets or displays the read-only, archive, system, and hidden attributes of a file or directory.
BACKUP d:[path][filename] d:[/S][/M][/A][/F:(size)] [/P][/D:date] [/T:time] [/L:[path]filename]
Makes a backup copy of one or more files. (In DOS Version 6, this program is stored on the DOS supplemental disk.)
BREAK =on|off
Used from the DOS prompt or in a batch file or in the CONFIG.SYS file to set (or display) whether or not DOS should check for a Ctrl + Break key combination.
CALL [d:][path]batchfilename [options]
Calls another batch file and then returns to current batch file to continue.
CHDIR (CD) [d:]path
CHDIR (CD)[..]
Displays working (current) directory and/or changes to a different directory.
CHKDSK [d:][path][filename] [/F][/V]
Checks a disk and provides a file and memory status report.
CHOICE [/C[:]keys] [/N][/S][/T[:]c,nn] [text]
Used to provide a prompt so that a user can make a choice while a batch program is running. 
CLS (Clear Screen)
Clears (erases) the screen. 
COMMAND [d:][path] [device] [/P][/E:(size)] [/MSG][/Y [/C (command)|/K (command)]
Starts a new version of the DOS command processor (the program that loads the DOS Internal programs).
COPY [/Y|-Y] [/A][/B] [d:][path]filename [/A][/B] [d:][path][filename] [/V]
COPY [/Y|-Y][/A][/B] [d:][path]filename+[d:][path]filename[...][d:][path][filename] [/V] 
Copies and appends files.
DATE mm-dd-yy
Displays and/or sets the system date.
Show the system Time ,then you can set new time or can exit by pressing Enter if you don't want to change.
DEBUG [pathname] [parameters]
An MS-DOS utility used to test and edit programs.
DEFRAG [d:] [/F][/S[:]order] [/B][/skiphigh [/LCD|/BW|/GO] [/H]
DEFRAG [d:] [/V][/B][/skiphigh] [/LCD]|/BW|/GO] [/H]
Optimizes disk performance by reorganizing the files on the disk. 
DEL (ERASE) [d:][path]filename [/P]
Deletes (erases) files from disk.
Deletes all files from previous versions of DOS after a 5.0 or 6.0 installation.
DELTREE [/Y] [d:]path [d:]path[...]
Deletes (erases) a directory including all files and subdirectories that are in it. 
DEVICE=(driver name)
Used in the CONFIG.SYS file to tell DOS which device driver to load.
DEVICEHIGH=(driver name)
Like DEVICE, DEVICEHIGH is used in the CONFIG.SYS file to tell DOS which device driver software to use for devices; however, this option is used to install the device driver into the upper memory area.
DIR [d:][path][filename] [/A:(attributes)] [/O:(order)] [/B][/C][/CH][/L][/S][/P][/W] 
Displays directory of files and directories stored on disk.
DISKCOMP [d:] [d:][/1][/8]
Compares the contents of two diskettes. 
DISKCOPY [d:] [d:][/1][/V][/M]
Makes an exact copy of a diskette.
Used in the CONFIG.SYS file to specify the memory location for DOS. It is used to load DOS into the upper memory area and to specify whether or not the upper memory blocks will be used.
DOSKEY [reinstall] [/bufsize=size][/macros][/history][/insert|/overstrike] [macroname=[text]]
Loads the Doskey program into memory which can be used to recall DOS commands so that you can edit them. 
EDIT [d:][path]filename [/B][/G][/H][/NOHI]
Starts the MS-DOS editor, a text editor used to create and edit ASCII text files.
Exits a secondary command processor.
MEM [/program|/debug|/classify|/free|/module(name)] [/page] 
Displays amount of installed and available memory, including extended, expanded, and upper memory.

MS DOS All Ping Commands and their Functions

Ping Functions Using Command prompt

What is Ping Command?

The ping command is a Command Prompt command used to test the ability of the source computer(Pc) to reach a specified destination computer. The ping command is usually used as a simple way verify that a computer can communicate over the network with another computer(Pc) or network device.
Step-1.Go To Start Menu
Step-2.Select RUN option
Step-3.Type CMD in the open text box.Then appear below the figure.

command prompt

Syntax of all ping Command :-
Example Of Ping Command .. In DOS .. c:>ping -t 
Syntax:-c:>ping$ -t
$ means space, is a IP address ,and -t  is command. Options:-

  • -t Ping the specified host until interrupted
  • -a Resolve addresses to hostnames
  • -n count Number of echo requests to send
  • -l Size Send buffer size
  • -f Set Don't Fragment flag in packet
  • -i TTL Time To Live
  • -v TOS Type Of Service
  • -r Count Record route for count hops
  • -s Count Times tamp for count hops
  • -j Host-list Loose source route along host-list
  • -k Host-list Strict source route along host-list
  • -w Timeout Timeout in milliseconds to wait for each reply
                 Experiment to see how helpful these can be!Enjoy It.
  • To learn More Command Prompt Command  Visit Now

Advantage of Network Topology

Bus Topology:

A network which consists of a single,long cable to which computer attach is known as bus topology.Any computer attach to a bus can send a single down the cable and all computers revives the single.
bus topology
Bus Topology

Advantages of Bus Topology:

  • The architecture of this layout is very simple and easy to maintain.
  • It is easy to extend the system simply by connecting additional nodes to the main cable.Signal amplifier (repeats)  can be added in case of extensive addition.

Disadvantages of Bus Topology:

  • There is a difficulty in fault diagnosis .Since the control of the network is not is centralized so it is difficult to detect a fault.
  • For fault repair if it is at the node the it can be rectified,but when the fault is in the network medium itself,then it is necessary to disconnect the entire segment.

Tree Topology:

A tree topology is a type of network topology that includes at least three specific levels in a topology hierarchy. Tree topologies are valued for their scalability and accessibility for troubleshooting.
Tree Topology
Tree Topology

Advantages of Tree Topology:

  • The Tree Topology is divided into sub unit,it is easier to extend the system.
  • In this process it is possible  to disconnect whole branches of networks from the main structure.

Disadvantages of tree Topology:

  • The network is dependent on the root,so when the headed devices fails to operate the entire networks.

Mesh Topology:

In a Mesh Topology ,every device has a dedicated point to point link to every other device.Mesh networking is a type of network topology in which a device (node) transmits its own data as well as serves as a relay for
Mesh Topology
Mesh Topology
other nodes. Routers are used to provide the best and most efficient data path for effective communication. In the event of a hardware failure, many routes are available to continue the network communication process.

Advantages of Mesh Topology:

  • Mesh Topology is robust.If one link becomes unusable,it does not incapacitates the entire system.
  • Point to point links makes fault identification and fault isolation easy.

Disadvantages of Mesh Topology:

  • The main disadvantage of a mesh are related to amount of cabling and the number of I/O ports required.
  • The hardware require to connect each link can be prohibitively expensive.

Network Topology

What is Network Topology?

Network Topology
Network Topology
A network topology refers to the physical layout of the network in which all devices i.e.all the hardware that makes up the network,are connected.The points of connection to the network by the station are call nodes or link station.
Example is a local area network (LAN): Any given node in the LAN has one or more physical links to other devices in the network; graphically mapping these links results in a geometric shape that can be used to describe the physical topology of the network. Conversely, mapping the data flow between the components determines the logical topology of the network.
Basic categories of network topologies:
  • Physical topologies
  • Logical topologies

Physical Topology:

The shape of the cabling layout used to link devices is called the physical topology of the network. This refers to the layout of cabling, the locations of nodes, and the interconnections between the nodes and the cabling. The physical topology of a network is determined by the capabilities of the network access devices and media, the level of control or fault tolerance desired, and the cost associated with cabling or telecommunications circuits.

Logical topologies:

The logical topology in contrast, is the way that the signals act on the network media, or the way that the data passes through the network from one device to the next without regard to the physical interconnection of the devices. A network's logical topology is not necessarily the same as its physical topology. For example, the original twisted pair Ethernet using repeater hubs was a logical bus topology with a physical star topology layout. Token Ring is a logical ring topology, but is wired a physical star from the Media Access Unit.

There are several types of topographical design and strategies are used to implement different networks.The types are-
  • Star Topology
  • Ring Topology.
  • Bus Topology
  • Tree Topology
  • Mesh Topology
  •  Hybrid Topology
  • Point-to-point Topology
  •  Daisy chain Topology

Star topology:

Star Topology
Star Topology
When all computers attach to the central point is called star topology.It is a star shaped network resembles the spokes of a wheel.The centre of the star network is often call a hub or central controller.A typical hub consists of an electronic device that accepts data from the sending computer and delivers it to the appropriate destination. 
Advantages of the Star Topology:
  • Here,in star topology, failure of a single connection disconnects one node only from the healthy network.
  • Since here the central node is connected directly to every other node,the faults when occur can be easily detected and isolated.
Disadvantages of the Star Topology:
  • Although the cost of the cables is small,but congestion in cables ducts,maintenance and installation problems increase the costs considerably.
  • It is central node dependent and if the central node fails,the entire networks becomes stall.  

Ring Topology:

The network that arranges computers to be connected in a closed loop is called Ring Topology.Here a cable connects the first computer to a second computer,another cable connects the second computer to a third and
Ring Topology
Ring Topology
so on,untill a cable connects the final computer back to the first.
Advantages of Ring Topology:
  • Since one cable connecting each node,the space required in the building for wiring is minimum.
  • In a ring topology although the length of cables is that of a bus,but here less connections are needed and hence reliability is increased.
Disadvantages of Ring Topology:
  • Since the failure of one node affects all the other,fault diagnosis is therefore very difficult.
  • It is not possible to shut down only a small segments of the ring keeping the majority of it in normal working condition.

Computer Networking


Computer networks are everywhere. You find them in large business and small one, school, college, institute,
computer up to date
government office and even students bedroom. In to–day world, it is important to know what networks are and how they can help you.
Networks enhance the computer’s ability to exchange, share, preserve and protect information. You will also see how networks can make it easier to share expensive hardware and software.


Despite the incompatibilities among network technologies researches have device a scheme that provides universal service among heterogeneous networks call internet or internetwork. Internet is the world’s largest computer network. Internet is a window to global information through interconnecting between several computers of different types all over the globe.
The internet use both hardware and software. Additional hardware systems are used to interconnect a set of physical networks .Software on the attached computers then provide universal service. The resulting system of connected physical networks is what we call as internet.
21st century world is the world of advertisement and Television, Radio and Newspapers etc. are the means of advertisement which is much expensive. In this sense internet is the best and most inexpensive means of advertisement. For thus the organization or the institution will set up a home page and the world will come to know about the products, price, service provided and other activities etc. through internet. The other facilities available through internet include publishing, extension, teaching etc.


An intranet uses the same tool and techniques as the global internet to provide information and services, but within a company or organization. An intranet can work equally well within the confines of a small company with a few employees scattered in different location or within a large, global corporation. If you have an intranet at your school or office, you view documents that look just like the ones on the web. An intranet can be up and running without any connection to the outside world.


In its simplest form, an extranet is an expanded internet that can include customers, client, supplies and almost anyone etc .who has contact with your company (who relate to your business) access to your internet using intranet technology. Extranet help business; improved customer service, Increases revenue and save time, money and resources.
Building an extranet is hard work-even harder than building an intranet. Many issues like compatibility, access and security, need to be worked out before the externals users are provided access. An extranet requires more planning than intranet and cost more, too.

Free net:

A free net provides free, public access to the internet. Free nets are often sponsored by local library system. Although they do not usually offer all the tools provided by an ISP (Internet service provider).Free nets gives e-mail services and limited access to the World Wide Web (WWW)
Many free net exist around the world but each one is tailored to meet the need of the local community. No two free nets are identical.
Free nets usually provide free email accounts to their users. The mail systems of most free net is not very sophisticated and only allow short text messages .you cannot attach a document or include graphics images in a free net mail message.


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