Showing posts with label Hardware. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Hardware. Show all posts

How To Check All Details Information of Your PC in 30 Seconds

Guys, Today i am share How To Check All Details Information of Your PC or laptop Motherboard and other Hardware devices.  We Can Check out All the Details of our Motherboard and other Hardware devices Information in a single step. So Here Below is List of Two Important Tools Which You can Use to Check Motherboard Model, Core Voltage,Clock Information,Cache Information etc. of Your Computer.

CPU-Z Utility Tool
The CPU-Z is a Free Software or Tool and One of the Most Used tool to Check All the Hardware Resources Information i.e About CPU(Name,Operating system, Mother ,Core Voltage,Clock Information,Cache Information) Motherboard(Vendor name,Model,Version,Bios Model and Date etc) Graphics,Memory and Much More... 

Checking Motherboard Model


How To Increase Speed of Hard Disk Drive



It is common observation that sometimes our computer or laptop slows down due to low performance of hard drive. This problem happens due to the slow performance or poor speed of hard disk drive (HDD). When we say about poor performance, actually we mean poor speed of reading/writing of hard drive. This problem can be solved easily maintain some steps.
HDD

Flowing The below steps
  • Click Start menu and go run.
  • Now type (sysedit.exe) in run open text box and press enter.
  • System configuration editor will appear.
  • Here you can see some multiple windows but you will select (system.ini).
  • This window contains a line (386enh)
  • Now after this line type (irq14=4096)
  • Now close this window and save it.


Finally Reboot(restart) your computer.Now you will surely feel better performance of your computer or laptop.

Wireless Networks and Wi-Fi Technology

What is Wi-Fi?

The Wi-Fi is the name of a popular wireless networking technology that uses radio waves to provide wireless high-speed Internet and networks connections.The wireless networking market is growing rapidly as business discover the productivity benefits of going wire-free.The increased mobility that WiFi networks offer has proved beneficial in operations throughout manufacturing facilities,warehouses transportation depot,hotel,airports,hospitals,collage,large enterprise as well as convention centers.In the corporation,
Wireless Networks and Wi-Fi Technology
conferance rooms,public area,and branch office constitute ideal venues for wireless LANs(WLANs)

WiFi solutions Installs Services:

  • Enterprise Wi-Fi Hotspots
  • Outdoor Broadband Wireless/Wi-Fi
  •  High Capacity WiMAX
  • Multi-Service Mesh Networks
  • Point to Point Wirless
  • Point to Multi-Point Wireless
  • Fixed Wireless Access
  • Wireless VOIP
  • Mobile Wireless Access
  • Wireless Video Surveillance.
  • 4.9GHz Public Safety Soluations
  • Business customer aggregation
  • Enterprise/Cumpus Inter-building connectivity
  • City -Wide municipal Networks
  • Wireless Back haul/Circuit Replacement
  • Wireless Video Surveillance
  • Public Safety Solutions

Common applications include of Wi-Fi:

  • Office Buildings
  • Business customer aggregation
  • Hotels
  • Resorts
  • Beach Fronts
  • Contruction Sites
  • Stadiums
  • Enterprise/Campus Inter-building Connectivity
  • Recreational Parks
  • Wireless Backhaul/Circuit Replacement
  • Condominiums
  • Colleges
  • Day Care
  • Marinas
  • Large enterprise
  • Public area and
  • Branch office


Complete Guide about DOS and DOS Commands

DOS-Disk Operating System

What is Booting?

Ms Dos

It is procedure by which we can ready the computer to do any task according to our choice.Booting are two types:
  • Hot Booting (Worm Booting)
  • Cold Booting (Cool Booting)

Cold Booting:-

When the machine is off and we boot the machine by pressing power switch from switch board and then on the power switch of CPU box, this type of booting is called cold Booting.

Hot Booting:-

When the machine is on and we reboot the machine by pressing Ctrl+Alt+Del switch at a time from keyboard or by pressing RESET switch from CPU box,this type of booting is called Hot Booting.

What is DOS?

The very first operating system used on the earliest IBM PCs was called simply the Disk Operating System,abbreviate DOS.
DOS(Disk Operating System) is an acronym for several closely related operating systems that dominated the IBM PC compatible market between 1981 and 1995, or until about 2000 including the partially DOS-based Microsoft Windows versions 95, 98, and Millennium Edition.
Related systems include MS-DOS, PC DOS, DR-DOS, FreeDOS, ROM-DOS, and PTS-DOS
Command:-
Command is a set of instruction.There are mainly two types of DOS command
  • Internal Command
  • External Command

Internal Command:-

These commands are automatically loaded into the computer's memory during booting process.They are actually included into the Command.com file.These commands are executable immediately after DOS prompt.
System Prompt or DOS Prompt:
C:\> This is called system prompt.
Note:-Where  C is drive name and '\' symbol means back slash.
Example of some Internal command-Date,Time,Ver,Vol,Cls,Type,Copy con,Copy,Ren,Del,MD,CD etc.

External Command:-

These commands are meant for special purposes.These are found in separate files on Hard disk or Floppy Disk,so that they don't typically consume valuable memory space.They are loaded into memory only as called that specifies command name.This are also called Disk-Resident commands.
Example of some External Commands-Attrib,Chkdsk,Label,FC,Xcopy,Move,Mode,Mem,More,Sort,Find,Tree,Help,Edit etc.

Some Important Internal and External DOS commands

Copy Con
(Internal)
syntax:-C:\>Copy con (File Name)<Enter>
This Command is used to make a new file
TYPE
(Internal)
Syntex:-C:\>Type [target drive:path\file name] <Enter>
This command is used to view the content of any file.
APPEND
(External)
APPEND ;
APPEND [d:]path[;][d:]path[...]
APPEND [/X:on|off][/path:on|off] [/E]
Displays or sets the search path for data files. DOS will search the specified path(s) if the file is not found in the current path.
ASSIGN
(External)
ASSIGN x=y [...] /sta
Redirects disk drive requests to a different drive. 
ATTRIB
(External)
ATTRIB [d:][path]filename [/S]
ATTRIB [+R|-R] [+A|-A] [+S|-S] [+H|-H] [d:][path]filename [/S]
Sets or displays the read-only, archive, system, and hidden attributes of a file or directory.
BACKUP
(External)
BACKUP d:[path][filename] d:[/S][/M][/A][/F:(size)] [/P][/D:date] [/T:time] [/L:[path]filename]
Makes a backup copy of one or more files. (In DOS Version 6, this program is stored on the DOS supplemental disk.)
BREAK
(Internal)
BREAK =on|off
Used from the DOS prompt or in a batch file or in the CONFIG.SYS file to set (or display) whether or not DOS should check for a Ctrl + Break key combination.
CALL
(Internal)
CALL [d:][path]batchfilename [options]
Calls another batch file and then returns to current batch file to continue.
CHDIR
(Internal)
CHDIR (CD) [d:]path
CHDIR (CD)[..]
Displays working (current) directory and/or changes to a different directory.
CHKDSK
(External)
CHKDSK [d:][path][filename] [/F][/V]
Checks a disk and provides a file and memory status report.
CHOICE
(Internal)
CHOICE [/C[:]keys] [/N][/S][/T[:]c,nn] [text]
Used to provide a prompt so that a user can make a choice while a batch program is running. 
CLS (Clear Screen)
(Internal)
CLS
Clears (erases) the screen. 
COMMAND
(External)
COMMAND [d:][path] [device] [/P][/E:(size)] [/MSG][/Y [/C (command)|/K (command)]
Starts a new version of the DOS command processor (the program that loads the DOS Internal programs).
COPY
(Internal)
COPY [/Y|-Y] [/A][/B] [d:][path]filename [/A][/B] [d:][path][filename] [/V]
or
COPY [/Y|-Y][/A][/B] [d:][path]filename+[d:][path]filename[...][d:][path][filename] [/V] 
Copies and appends files.
DATE
(Internal)
DATE mm-dd-yy
Displays and/or sets the system date.
TIME
(Internal)
Syntax:-C:\>Time<Enter>
Show the system Time ,then you can set new time or can exit by pressing Enter if you don't want to change.
DEBUG
(External)
DEBUG [pathname] [parameters]
An MS-DOS utility used to test and edit programs.
DEFRAG
(External)
DEFRAG [d:] [/F][/S[:]order] [/B][/skiphigh [/LCD|/BW|/GO] [/H]
DEFRAG [d:] [/V][/B][/skiphigh] [/LCD]|/BW|/GO] [/H]
Optimizes disk performance by reorganizing the files on the disk. 
DEL (ERASE)
(Internal)
DEL (ERASE) [d:][path]filename [/P]
Deletes (erases) files from disk.
DELOLDOS
(External)
DELOLDOS [/B]
Deletes all files from previous versions of DOS after a 5.0 or 6.0 installation.
DELTREE
(External)
DELTREE [/Y] [d:]path [d:]path[...]
Deletes (erases) a directory including all files and subdirectories that are in it. 
DEVICE
(Internal)
DEVICE=(driver name)
Used in the CONFIG.SYS file to tell DOS which device driver to load.
DEVICEHIGH
(Internal)
DEVICEHIGH=(driver name)
Like DEVICE, DEVICEHIGH is used in the CONFIG.SYS file to tell DOS which device driver software to use for devices; however, this option is used to install the device driver into the upper memory area.
DIR
(Internal)
DIR [d:][path][filename] [/A:(attributes)] [/O:(order)] [/B][/C][/CH][/L][/S][/P][/W] 
Displays directory of files and directories stored on disk.
DISKCOMP
(External)
DISKCOMP [d:] [d:][/1][/8]
Compares the contents of two diskettes. 
DISKCOPY
(External)
DISKCOPY [d:] [d:][/1][/V][/M]
Makes an exact copy of a diskette.
DOS
(Internal)
DOS=[high|low],[umb|noumb]
Used in the CONFIG.SYS file to specify the memory location for DOS. It is used to load DOS into the upper memory area and to specify whether or not the upper memory blocks will be used.
DOSKEY
(External)
DOSKEY [reinstall] [/bufsize=size][/macros][/history][/insert|/overstrike] [macroname=[text]]
Loads the Doskey program into memory which can be used to recall DOS commands so that you can edit them. 
EDIT
(External)
EDIT [d:][path]filename [/B][/G][/H][/NOHI]
Starts the MS-DOS editor, a text editor used to create and edit ASCII text files.
EXIT
(Internal)
EXIT
Exits a secondary command processor.
MEM
(External)
MEM [/program|/debug|/classify|/free|/module(name)] [/page] 
Displays amount of installed and available memory, including extended, expanded, and upper memory.


Computer Networking



Introduction:

Computer networks are everywhere. You find them in large business and small one, school, college, institute,
computer up to date
government office and even students bedroom. In to–day world, it is important to know what networks are and how they can help you.
Networks enhance the computer’s ability to exchange, share, preserve and protect information. You will also see how networks can make it easier to share expensive hardware and software.

Internet:

Despite the incompatibilities among network technologies researches have device a scheme that provides universal service among heterogeneous networks call internet or internetwork. Internet is the world’s largest computer network. Internet is a window to global information through interconnecting between several computers of different types all over the globe.
The internet use both hardware and software. Additional hardware systems are used to interconnect a set of physical networks .Software on the attached computers then provide universal service. The resulting system of connected physical networks is what we call as internet.
21st century world is the world of advertisement and Television, Radio and Newspapers etc. are the means of advertisement which is much expensive. In this sense internet is the best and most inexpensive means of advertisement. For thus the organization or the institution will set up a home page and the world will come to know about the products, price, service provided and other activities etc. through internet. The other facilities available through internet include publishing, extension, teaching etc.

 Intranet:

An intranet uses the same tool and techniques as the global internet to provide information and services, but within a company or organization. An intranet can work equally well within the confines of a small company with a few employees scattered in different location or within a large, global corporation. If you have an intranet at your school or office, you view documents that look just like the ones on the web. An intranet can be up and running without any connection to the outside world.

Extranet:

In its simplest form, an extranet is an expanded internet that can include customers, client, supplies and almost anyone etc .who has contact with your company (who relate to your business) access to your internet using intranet technology. Extranet help business; improved customer service, Increases revenue and save time, money and resources.
Building an extranet is hard work-even harder than building an intranet. Many issues like compatibility, access and security, need to be worked out before the externals users are provided access. An extranet requires more planning than intranet and cost more, too.

Free net:

A free net provides free, public access to the internet. Free nets are often sponsored by local library system. Although they do not usually offer all the tools provided by an ISP (Internet service provider).Free nets gives e-mail services and limited access to the World Wide Web (WWW)
Many free net exist around the world but each one is tailored to meet the need of the local community. No two free nets are identical.
Free nets usually provide free email accounts to their users. The mail systems of most free net is not very sophisticated and only allow short text messages .you cannot attach a document or include graphics images in a free net mail message.

Computer CPU Registers

Different CPU register :

register
cpu register
               A register is a group of memory elements that work together as a unit. It can store one bit of information. The simplest registers do nothing more than store a binary word;others modify the stored word by shifting its bits left or right or by performing other operations to be discussed in this article.

Accumulator(AC):

        An accumulator(AC) is a buffer register that store the result after the computation,It is a 16 -bits register and determines the largest real integer number that can be processed in a computer.

Flag:

Status register which is a special purpose register of CPU is known as flag-register or condition code.It holds 1-bit flags to indicate certain condition that arises during arithmetic and logical operations.

Program Counter (PC):

Program counter(PC) store the address of the next instruction.Program counter at any point of time holds the address of the next instruction in the  program.At the beginning of execution,It points to the address of the first instruction.This register goes through a counting sequence and directs computer to read instructions sequentially from the memory.

Instruction Register(IR):

Holds the current instruction after it has been fetched from the memory and so on. It consists of an op-code of 4 data bits an address or 12-bits,so Instruction Register(IR) is a 16-bits register.

Memory Address Register(MAR):

Memory Address Register(MAR) at any time contains the address of current instruction being executed.The process proceeds like this- read cycle initiated and PC incremented by one. Since MAR is required to address memory only,it is a 12-bits register.

Memory Buffer Register(MBR):

Memory buffer register (MBR) is a 16-bits register the store the data temporarily as it is.Transferred back and forth between the memory.Read/write signals are held here.

General Purpose Register(GPR):

There are 9 General Purpose Register (GPR) which ware used to store intermediate result obtained during and arithmetic operations.They are numbered 1,2,3 ....9 Each register is 8 digits log and can hold one word. 

Register usage:

The number of registers available on a processor and the operations that can be performed using those registers has a significant impact on the efficiency of code generated by optimizing compilers. The Strahler number of an expression tree gives the minimum number of registers required to evaluate that expression tree.

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