Showing posts with label Introduction of Computer. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Introduction of Computer. Show all posts

Computer Networking


Computer networks are everywhere. You find them in large business and small one, school, college, institute,
computer up to date
government office and even students bedroom. In to–day world, it is important to know what networks are and how they can help you.
Networks enhance the computer’s ability to exchange, share, preserve and protect information. You will also see how networks can make it easier to share expensive hardware and software.


Despite the incompatibilities among network technologies researches have device a scheme that provides universal service among heterogeneous networks call internet or internetwork. Internet is the world’s largest computer network. Internet is a window to global information through interconnecting between several computers of different types all over the globe.
The internet use both hardware and software. Additional hardware systems are used to interconnect a set of physical networks .Software on the attached computers then provide universal service. The resulting system of connected physical networks is what we call as internet.
21st century world is the world of advertisement and Television, Radio and Newspapers etc. are the means of advertisement which is much expensive. In this sense internet is the best and most inexpensive means of advertisement. For thus the organization or the institution will set up a home page and the world will come to know about the products, price, service provided and other activities etc. through internet. The other facilities available through internet include publishing, extension, teaching etc.


An intranet uses the same tool and techniques as the global internet to provide information and services, but within a company or organization. An intranet can work equally well within the confines of a small company with a few employees scattered in different location or within a large, global corporation. If you have an intranet at your school or office, you view documents that look just like the ones on the web. An intranet can be up and running without any connection to the outside world.


In its simplest form, an extranet is an expanded internet that can include customers, client, supplies and almost anyone etc .who has contact with your company (who relate to your business) access to your internet using intranet technology. Extranet help business; improved customer service, Increases revenue and save time, money and resources.
Building an extranet is hard work-even harder than building an intranet. Many issues like compatibility, access and security, need to be worked out before the externals users are provided access. An extranet requires more planning than intranet and cost more, too.

Free net:

A free net provides free, public access to the internet. Free nets are often sponsored by local library system. Although they do not usually offer all the tools provided by an ISP (Internet service provider).Free nets gives e-mail services and limited access to the World Wide Web (WWW)
Many free net exist around the world but each one is tailored to meet the need of the local community. No two free nets are identical.
Free nets usually provide free email accounts to their users. The mail systems of most free net is not very sophisticated and only allow short text messages .you cannot attach a document or include graphics images in a free net mail message.

Printer and its classifications


A printer is peripheral device,which receives data from computer and prints it on a paper.That is it simple acts like an output device for the system.Printer are classified mainly in two types -
  • Impact Printers
  • Non impact printers


Impact printer:

An impact printers are those in which the characters are printed by impacting the print head or hammer to the roller or platen. In this type of printer the print head makes a contact with the paper physically.There are several types of impact printers-
impact printer
  • Dot Matrix printers(DMP)
  • Band printers
  • Drum Printers
  • Daisy wheel printers
The general features of impact printers are-
  • Uses force by applying hammer pins to strike the paper
  • Slow speed in characters per second
  • Prints on most paper types
  • Transparencies not supported
  • Multiple copies may be printed at once


  • Very low operating costs.
  • It can print on continuous stationary.
  • Dot matrix priters can create carbon copies when carbonated paper is used.


  • The print quality is very poor.
  •  Very slow going machine-it ranges from 40 character per second (cps) to about 1000 cps.
  • The machine is very noisy-can not be used near a telephone line.
  • It cannot produce color copies.

Non-Impact printers:

Non impact printers are those printers,which prints the characters by image formation similar to Xerox. In this type the print head never touches the paper physically. The outputs of these printers are of better quality compare to the impact printers. Most over it we compare the speed bettween impact and non-impact printers the non-impact printers are faster than the impact printers.These are several types of non-impact printers.
non-impact printer
  • Laser Printers
  • Ink Jet Printer
 The general features of non-impact printers are-
  • Print head does not make contact with the paper
  • Higher speed in characters per second is posible
  • Prints on most paper types but better quality obtained with better paper 
  • Transparencies usually supported

  • It is a high resolution machine which range from 300 to 600 dpi (dots per inch).
  • They are comparatively small and lighter in weight.
  • It is almost noiseless.
  • Very high quality printout.
  • Less costly.

  • It is slow as compared to laser printer.
  • The cartridges cost more per pages than laser printer cartridge.
  • Cartridges need to be replaced more frequently than the laser printer.
  • Can not be used continuously for log
  • Color printing can take 25-30 seconds each page.

More than 500 Computer related full Form

Most Impotent Computer Related Full Form

3G =3rd Generation.
3GP =3rd Generation Project
3GPP =3rd Generation Partnership Project
AAC =Advanced Audio Coding
AC=Alternating Current
ACP=Advanced Configuration and Power Interface
ALU =Arithmetic logic unit
AM/FM =Amplitude/ Frequency Modulation.
AM=Amplitude Modulated
AMD=Advanced Micro Devices, Inc.
AMI=American Megatrends Inc.
AMR =Adaptive Multi-Rate Codec
ANSI=American National Standards Institute
APIC=Advanced Programmable Interrupt Controller
APM=Advanced Power Management
ARPANET =Advanced Research Project Agency Network.
ASCII=American Standard Code for Information Interchange
ASIC=Application Specific Integrated Circuit
ASPI=Advanced SCSI Programming Interface
AT=Advanced Technology
ATA=AT Bus Attachment
ATAP=ATA Packet Interface
ATM=Asynchronous Transfer Mode
AVI =Audio Video Interleave
BBS=Bulletin Board System
BCC=lock Check Character
BCD=Binary Coded Decimal
BIOS=Basic Input / Output System
BMP =Bitmap
BNC=Bayonet Nut Connector
BPS/bps=Bytes/bits Per Second
BSC=Binary Synchronous Communications
BSD=Berkeley Standard Distribution
BTU=British Thermal Units
CAD=Computer Aided Design
CAM=Computer Aided Manufacturing
CAS=Column Address Strobe
CD = Compact Disk
CD=Carrier Detect & Compact Disc
CD=Compact Disk.
CDMA =Code Division Multiple Access.
CD-R =Compact Disc-Recordable
CD-ROM =Compact disc read-only memory
CD-RW =Compact Disc-ReWritable
CGA=Color Graphics Adapter
CHS=Cylinder Head Sector
CMOS=Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor
COMPUTER =Common Oriented Machine Particularly Used for Trade Education and Research
CPI=Clocks Per Instruction
CPU = Central Processing Unit
CR=Carriage Return
CRC=Cyclical Redundancy Check
CRT =Cathode Ray Tube
CRT =Cathode Ray Tube.
CSR=Command Status Register
CTS: Clear To Send
CUI =Composite User Interface
DAT =Digital Audio Tape.
DC: Direct Current
DCD=Data Carrier Detect
DCE=Data Circuit-terminating Equipment
DD= Double Density
DEC= Digital Equipment Corporation
DIP= Dual-In-line Package
DMA= Direct Memory Access
DMI=Desktop Management Interface
DOC =Document (Microsoft Corporation)
DOS =Disk Operating System.
DPE= Data Parity Error
DRAM= Dynamic Random Access Memory
DS= Double Sided
DSP=Digital Signal Processor
DSR=Data Set Ready
DTC=Data Terminal Controller
DTE=Data Terminating Equipment
DTR= Data Terminal Ready
DVD = Digital Video Disk
DVI =Digital Visual Interface
DVX =DivX Video
EBCDIC= Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code
EC= Error Check
ECC=Error Check and Correction
ECP=Enhanced Communication Port
ECU=EISA Configuration Utility
EDGE =Enhanced Data Rate for
EDGE =Enhanced Data Rate for GSM [Global System for Mobile ommunication] Evolution.
EDO=Extended Data Out RAM
EEPROM = Electrically EPROM
EGA= Enhanced Graphics Adapter
EIA= Electronic Industries Association
EIDE=Enhanced Integrated Device Electronics
EISA= Enhanced Industry Standard Architecture
EMF=Electro-Magnetic Force
EMI=Electro-Magnetic Interference
EMS=Expanded Memory Specification
EOF=End Of File
EOL= End Of Line
EPP=Enhanced Parallel Port
EPROM = Erasable PROM
EPROM= Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory
ESCD= Extended System Configuration Data
ESD=Electro-Static Discharge
ESDI= Enhanced Small Devices Interface
FAT=File Allocation Table
FCC=Federal Communications Commission
FDD = Floppy Disk Drive
FDDI= Fiber Distributed Data Interface
FDM=Frequency Division Multiplexing
FDX= Full-Duplex Transmission
FE= Front End
FEP= Front End Processor
FF= Form Feed
FIFO=First-In First-Out
FILO= First-In Last-Out
FM= Frequency Modulation
FPGA= Field Programmable Gate Array
FPM=Fast Page Mode RAM
FPU= Floating Point Unit
FRC=Functional Redundancy Checking
FRU= Field-Replaceable Unit
FSF=Free Software Foundation
FSK=Frequency Shifty Keying
FTP =File Transfer Protocol
GAS= Gallium Arsenide
GFLOPS= Billions of Floating Point Operations Per Second
GIF =Graphic Interchangeable Format
GPRS =General Packet Radio Service.
GSM =Global System for Mobile Communication.
GSM =Global System for Mobile Communication] Evolution.
GUI =Graphical user interface
GUI =Graphical User Interface.
HD= High Density / Hard Disk
HDD = Hard Disk Drive
HDX= Half-Duplex Transmission
HFS= Hierarchical File System
HLL = High Level Language
HP =ewlett Packard.
HPFS= High Performance File System
HSDPA =High Speed Downlink Packet Access.
HTML = Hyper Text Markup Language
HTTP = Hyper Text Templates
HTTP =Hyper Text Transfer Protocol
HTTPS =Hyper Text Transfer Protocol Secure.
I/O = Input & Output
IBM =International Business Machine Corporation.
IBM =International Business Machines.
IBM= International Business Machines, Indian Bureau of Mines
IC= Integrated Circuit
IDE=Integrated Device Electronics
IEEE= Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers
IMP= Interface Message Processor
IP = Internet Protocol
IP =Internet Protocol.
IPC=Inter Process Communication
IPX=Inter network Packet eXchange
IRQ= Interrupt ReQuest
ISA=Industry Standard Architecture
ISDN= Integrated Services Digital Network
ISO= International Standards Organization
ISP = Internet Service Provider
ISP =Internet Service Provider.
JAD - Java Application Descriptor
JAR =Java Archive
JFS=Journalized File System
JPEG =Joint Photographic Expert Group
JPEG =Joint Photographic Expert Group
KBD = KeyBoard
Kbps = Kilo Bytes per second
KNI= Katmai New Instructions
KVA= KiloVolt-Amps
LAN = Local Area Network
LASER = Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation
LBA=Linear Block Array / Addressing
LCD = Liquid Crystal Display
LED = Light Embedded Diode
LF=Line Feed
LIM=Lotus/Intel/Microsoft’s Expanded Memory Manager
LLL = Low Level Language
LOGO= Language of Graphic-Oriented
LRU= Least-Recently Used
LSB/lsb= Least Significant Byte/bit
LSI=Large Scale Integration
LUN= Logical Unit Number
M3G =Mobile 3D Graphics
M4A - MPEG-4 Audio File
MAN = Metropolitan Area Network
MAN =Metropolitan area network
MB/Mb= Mega Bytes/bits
Mbps = Mega Bytes Per second
MBR=Master Boot Record
MCA= Micro Channel Architecture
MCGA= Multi-Color Graphics Array
MCM= Multi-Chip Module
MDRAM=Multi-bank RAM
MFLOPS= Millions of FLOating Point Operations per Second
MFM= Modified Frequency Modulated
MHz= MegaHertz
MICR= Magnetic Ink Character Recognition
MIDI= Musical Instrument Data Interface
MIMD= Multiple-Instruction Multiple-Data
MIPS = Microprocessor without Interlocked Pipeline Stages
MISD=Multiple-Instruction Single Data
MMF =Synthetic Music Mobile Application File
MMX= Multi-Media Extensions
MNP= Microcom Network Protocol
MODEM= MOdulator / DEModulator
MOPS= Millions of Operations Per Second
MOS= Metal-Oxide Semiconductor
MP3 =MPEG player lll
MP4 =MPEG-4 video file
MPP=Massively Parallel Processor
MPS= Multi-Processor System
MSB/msb= Most Significant Byte/bit
MSDOS= Microsoft’s Disk Operating System
MSo = Micro Soft Office, Multi system operator
MTBF= Mean Time Between Failure
NBS= National Bureau of Standards
NEMA= National Electrical Manufacturers Association
NFS= Network File System
NFU=Not-Frequently Used
NMI= Non-Maskable Interrupt
NMOS= Negatively doped Metal-Oxide Semiconductor
NOP= No OPeration NRU Not-Recently Used
NRT =Nokia Ringtone
NSF= National Science Foundation
NTH =Nokia Theme (series 40)
NVRAM= NonVolatile Random Access Memory
OCR= Optical Character Recognition
ODI= Open Data link Interface
OEM= Original Equipment Manufacturer
OS=Operating System
OSF= Open Software Foundation
OSI=Open Systems Interconnect
PAL/PLA= Programmable Array Logic / Logic Array
PB=Push Button
PBX= Private Branch eXtender
PC=Personal Computer, Program Counter
PCB= Printed Circuit Board
PCI= Peripheral Component Interconnect
PCM= Pulse Code Modulation
PCMCIA= Personal Computer Memory Card International Association
PDF =Portable Document Format
PE= Processor Element
PFF= Page Fault Frequency
PGA= Pin Grid Array
PGA=Professional Graphics Array
PIC= Programmable Interrupt Controller
PIO=Programmed Input / Output
PIROM= Processor Information ROM
PLCC= Plastic Leaded Chip Carrier
PLL= Phase Locked Loop
PM= Preventive Maintenance
PMOS= Positively doped Metal-Oxide Semiconductor
PNG =Portable Network Graphics
POST = Power ON Self Test
PPP=Point-to-Point Protocol
PQFP=Plastic Quad Flat Pack
PROM = Programmable Read Only Memory
PSTN= Public Switched Telephone Network
PTE=Page Table Entry
QAM= Quadrature Amplitude Modulation
QFP= Quad Flat Pack
QIC=Quarter Inch Cartridge
RAID=Redundant Arrays of Inexpensive Disks
RAM = Random-access memory
RAMDAC= Random Access Memory Digital to Analogue Converter
RAS=Row Address Strobe
RCA=Radio Corporation of America
RCC= Routing Control Center
RFC= Request For Comments
RFI= Radio Frequency Interference
RI=Ring Indicator
RISC= Reduced Instruction-Set Computer
RLL= Run Length Limited
RMS=Root Mean Squared
RMW= Read Modify Write
ROM = Read Only Memory
RPC=Remote Procedure Call
RPM= Rotations Per Minute
RTC=Real Time Clock
RTS =Real Time Streaming
RTS= Request To Send
SAM= Sequential Access Memory
SASI=Shugart Associates Standard Interface
SCSI= Small Computer Systems Interface
SD=Single Density
SDLC= Synchronous Data Link Control
SDRAM BDDR= Bi-Directional Strobed DDR SDRAM
SDRAM DDR=Double Data Rate SDRAM
SDRAM= Synchronous Dynamic RAM
SE=Systems Engineer
SEC= Single Edge Contact
SFF=Small Form Factor
SGRAM= Synchronous Graphics RAM
SI= Medium Scale Integration
SIM =Subscriber Identity Module.
SIMD=Single-Instruction Multiple-Data
SIMM= Single Inline Memory Module
SIPP= Single Inline Pinned Package
SIS =Symbian OS Installer File
SISD=Single-Instruction Single-Dat
SLIP=Serial Line Internet Protocol
SMD= Surface Mount Device
SMPS = Switch Mode Power Supply
SMS = Short Message Service
SMT=Surface Mount Technology
SNA= System Network Architecture
SNR=Signal to Noise Ratio
SO/SOL=Small Out Line
SOIC= Small Outline Integrated Circuit
SPOOL= Simultaneous Peripheral Operation On Line
SPT=Sectors Per Track
SPU=Single Processor Unit
SRAM= Static Random Access Memory
SS=Single Sided
STDM= Synchronous Time Division Multiplexing
STN= Super Twisted Nematic
STU=Streaming Tape Unit
SVGA= Super Video Graphics Array
SWF =Shock Wave Flash
TCM=Trellis Code Modulation
TCP =Transmission Control Protocol.
TCP/IP= Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol
TDM=Time Division Multiplexing
THM =hemes (Sony Ericsson)
TI=Texas Instruments
TIA=Telecomm Industry Association
TLB= Translation-Look aside Buffer
TPI=Tracks Per Inch
TSR=Terminate and Stay Resident
TTL= Transistor-Transistor Logic
UAE=Unrecoverable Application Error
UART= Universal Asynchronous Receiver/Transmitter
UDP= User Datagram Protocol
UHF =Ultra High Frequency.
UMB=Upper Memory Block
UMTS - Universal Mobile Telecommunication System.
UNIX= A trademark used for a computer disk operating system
UPS = Uninterruptible power supply
UPS =Uninterruptible Power Supply.
URL =Uniform Resource Locator.
USB = Universal Serial Bus
USB =Universal Serial Bus.
USL=UNIX System Labs
UUCP=UNIX to UNIX Copy Program
VBE= Video BIOS Extensions
VCR=Video Cassette RecorderVESA: Video Enhanced Standards Association
VDU = Visual Display Unit
VGA = Video/Visual Graphic Adapter
VHF =Very High Frequency.
VIRUS =Vital Information Resource Under Seized.
VIRUS= Vital Information Resources Under Seize
VLB=VESA Local Bus
VLIW= Very Long Instruction Word
VLSI= Very Large Scale Integration
VM=Virtual Memory
VME= Versa Module Euro-card
VRAM= Video Random Access Memory
VRT= Voltage Reduction Technology
VTR=Video Tape Recorder
WAN = Wide Area Network
WAN =Wide area network
WAP =Wireless Application Protocol.
WATS= Wide Area Telephone Service
WAV =Waveform Audio
WAV =Waveform Audio
WBMP =Wireless Bitmap Image
WD=Western Digital
WLAN =Wireless Local Area Network
WMA =Windows Media Audio
WML =Wireless Markup Language
WMV =Windows Media Video
WORM=Write Once - Read-Many
WRAM= Window Random Access Memory
WS=Wait State
WWW = World Wide Web
XGA: eXtended Graphics Array
XMF =Extensible Music File
XMS: Extended Memory Specification
XOR: Exclusive-OR
XT: eXtended Technology
ZIF: Zero Insertion Force


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